Recommandations en onco-urologie 2016-2018 du CCAFU : Cancer du rein

19 novembre 2016

Mots clés : cancer du rein, recommandations, Chirurgie, classification, Anti-angiogéniques, Kidney cancer, guidelines, Surgery, Anti-angiogenics
Auteurs : E. Bey, O. Gaget, J. Jund, C. Overs, O. Skowron
Référence : Prog Urol, 2016, 16, 27, S27, suppl. S1

Les précédentes recommandations du Comité de cancérologie de l’Association française d’urologie (CCAFU) datent de 2013. Nous avons voulu cette nouvelle version résolument simple, claire et pragmatique. Les nouveautés significatives de la littérature sur le cancer du rein y ont été intégrées. Voici les principaux changements par rapport à 2013 :

Nous avons ajouté une courte section d’épidémiologie : la prévalence du tabagisme reste très élevée en France et il nous est apparu fondamental que l’urologue sensibilise les patients avec un cancer du rein à l’importance d’arrêter de fumer
Certaines classifications ont changé : la classification de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) a été revue en 2016 et le grade de Fuhrman a été remplacé par le grade nucléolaire de l’Internationel Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP).
Les facteurs pronostiques restent essentiellement cliniques et histologiques ; les systèmes pronostiques sont surtout utiles chez les patients métastatiques ; la classification de l’International Metastatic Renal Cancer Database Concertium (IMDC) (ou de Heng) est maintenant celle qui prévaut sur celle du Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC).
Concernant le traitement du cancer du rein localisé : les bénéfices de la néphrectomie partielle (NP) sont clairement établis ; la voie d’accès robotique s’est beaucoup développée est a montré une morbidité moins importante que la voie ouverte ; elle peut maintenant être recommandée au même titre que la voie ouverte (qui était auparavant la voie de référence).
Le traitement du cancer du rein localement avancé repose toujours sur la chirurgie ; les premiers essais de traitements adjuvants sont négatifs ; en attendant les résultats d’autres études en cours, les thérapies ciblées ne doivent être prescrites que dans le cadre d’essais cliniques.
Le traitement du cancer du rein métastatique (CRM) s’est enrichi de deux molécules (lenivolumab et la cabozantinib) qui sont devenues, suite à des essais de phase III ayant montré un bénéfice en terme de survie, les molécules de référence en deuxième ligne .
Enfin, les modalités de suivi après chirurgie du cancer du rein sont toujours imprécises ; en attendant les résultats d’études multicentriques de grande envergure, il faut adapter le suivi au risque d’agressivité tumorale ; les tumeurs de faible risque récidivent rarement et il est donc possible d’utiliser moins fréquemment les imageries irradiantes.

© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

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Références

 

 
Épidémiologie

 

 

Ljungberg B., Campbell S.C., Choi H.Y., Cho H.Y., Jacqmin D., Lee J.E., et al. The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma Eur Urol 2011 ;  60 : 615-62110.1016/j.eururo.2011.06.049 [cross-ref]
 
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Diagnostic et évaluation du cancer du rein

 

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Classifications et facteurs pronostiques du cancer du rein

 

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Moch H., Humphrey P.A., Ulbright T.M., Reuter V.E. WHO classification of tumors of the urinary system and male genitale organs Lyon:IARC 2016 ; 11-76
 
Ficarra V., et al. Preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification of renal tumours in patients who are candidates for nephron-sparing surgery Eur. Urol 2009 ;  56 : 786-793 [cross-ref]
 
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Frank I., et al. An outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy based on tumor stage, size, grade and necrosis: the SSIGN score J. Urol 2002 ;  168 : 2395-2400 [cross-ref]
 
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Traitement du cancer du rein localisé

 

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Van Poppel H., Da Pozzo L., Albrecht W., Matveev V., Bono A., Borkowski A., et al. A prospective, randomised EORTC intergroup phase 3 study comparing the oncologic outcome of elective nephron-sparing surgery and radical nephrectomy for low-stage renal cell carcinoma Eur Urol 2011 ;  59 : 543-552 [cross-ref]
 
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Jang H.A., Kim J.W., Byun S.S., Hong S.H., Kim Y.J., Park Y.H., et al. Oncologic and Functional Outcomes after Partial Nephrectomy Versus Radical Nephrectomy in T1b Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter, Matched Case-Control Study in Korean Patients Cancer Res Treat 2016 ;  48 : 612-620 [cross-ref]
 
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Gratzke C., Seitz M., Bayrle F., Schlenker B., Bastian P.J., Haseke N., et al. Quality of life and perioperative outcomes after retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy (RN), open RN and nephronsparing surgery in patients with renal cell carcinoma BJU Int 2009 ;  104 : 470-475 [cross-ref]
 
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Tumeurs localisées de plus de 4cm (T1b et T2)

 

Simmons M.N., Weight C.J., Gill I.S. Laparoscopic radical versus partial nephrectomy for tumors >4cm: intermediate-term oncologic and functional outcomes Urology 2009 ;  73 : 1077-1082 [inter-ref]
 
Leibovich B.C., Blute M.L., Cheville J.C., Lohse C.M., Weaver A.L., Zincke H. Nephron sparing surgery for appropriately selected renal cell carcinoma between 4 and 7cm results in outcome similar to radical nephrectomy J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 1066-1070 [cross-ref]
 
Patard J.J., Pantuck A.J., Crepel M., Lam J.S., Bellec L., Albouy B., et al. Morbidity and clinical outcome of nephron-sparing surgery in relation to tumour size and indication Eur Urol 2007 ;  52 : 148-154 [cross-ref]
 
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Kopp R.P., Liss M.A., Mehrazin R., Wang S., Lee H.J., Jabaji R., et al. Analysis of Renal Functional Outcomes After Radical or Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Masses >7cm Using the RENAL Score Urology 2015 ;  86 : 312-319 [inter-ref]
 
Kopp R.P., Mehrazin R., Palazzi K.L., Liss M.A., Jabaji R., Mirheydar H.S., et al. Survival outcomes after radical and partial nephrectomy for clinical T2 renal tumours categorised by R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score Bju Int 2014 ;  114 : 708-718 [cross-ref]
 
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Bekema H.J., MacLennan S., Imamura M., Lam T.B.L., Stewart F., Scott N., et al. Systematic review of adrenalectomy and lymph node dissection in locally advanced renal cell carcinoma Eur Urol 2013 ;  64 : 799-810 [cross-ref]
 
Blom J.H.M., van Poppel H., Maréchal J.M., Jacqmin D., Schroder F.H., de Prijck L., et al. Radical nephrectomy with and without lymph-node dissection: final results of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized phase 3 trial 30881 Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 28-34 [cross-ref]
 
Dimashkieh H.H., Lohse C.M., Blute M.L., Kwon E.D., Leibovich B.C., Cheville J.C. Extranodal extension in regional lymph nodes is associated with outcome in patients with renal cell carcinoma J Urol 2006 ;  176 : 1978-1982discussion 1982–1983.  [cross-ref]
 
Terrone C., Cracco C., Porpiglia F., Bollito E., Scoffone C., Poggio M., et al. Reassessing the current TNM lymph node staging for renal cell carcinoma Eur Urol 2006 ;  49 : 324-331 [cross-ref]
 
Kim S., Thompson R.H., Weight C., Cheville J., Lohse C., Boorjian S., et al. The Relationship of Lymph Node Dissection with Recurrence and Survival for Patients Treated with Nephrectomy for High-Risk Renal Cell Carcinoma J Urol 2012 ;  187 : e233-e234
 
Hutterer G.C., Patard J.J., Perrotte P., Ionescu C., de La Taille A., Salomon L., et al. Patients with renal cell carcinoma nodal metastases can be accurately identified: external validation of a new nomogram Int J Cancer 2007 ;  121 : 2556-2561 [cross-ref]
 
Gratzke C., Seitz M., Bayrle F., Schlenker B., Bastian P.J., Haseke N., et al. Quality of life and perioperative outcomes after retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy (RN), open RN and nephron-sparing surgery in patients with renal cell carcinoma Bju Int 2009 ;  104 : 470-475 [cross-ref]
 
Hattori R., Osamu K., Yoshino Y., Tsuchiya F., Fujita T., Yamada S., et al. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for large renal-cell carcinomas J Endourol Endourol Soc 2009 ;  23 : 1523-1526 [cross-ref]
 
Hemal A.K., Kumar A., Kumar R., Wadhwa P., Seth A., Gupta N.P. Laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy for large renal tumors: a long-term prospective comparison J Urol 2007 ;  177 : 862-866 [cross-ref]
 
Hollingsworth J.M., Miller D.C., Daignault S., Hollenbeck B.K. Five-year survival after surgical treatment for kidney cancer: a population-based competing risk analysis Cancer 2007 ;  109 : 1763-1768 [cross-ref]
 
Jeon S.H., Kwon T.G., Rha K.H., Sung G.T., Lee W., Lim J.S., et al. Comparison of laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy for large renal tumors: a retrospective analysis of multi-center results Bju Int 2011 ;  107 : 817-821 [cross-ref]
 
Kwon T., Song C., Hong J.H., Kim C.S., Ahn H. Reassessment of renal cell carcinoma lymph node staging: analysis of patterns of progression Urology 2011 ;  77 : 373-378 [inter-ref]
 
Laird A., Choy K.C.C., Delaney H., Cutress M.L., OʼConnor K.M., Tolley D.A., et al. Matched pair analysis of laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy for the treatment of T3 renal cell carcinoma World J Urol 2015 ;  33 : 25-32 [cross-ref]
 
Sprenkle P.C., Power N., Ghoneim T., Touijer K.A., Dalbagni G., Russo P., et al. Comparison of open and minimally invasive partial nephrectomy for renal tumors 4-7 centimeters Eur Urol 2012 ;  61 : 593-599 [cross-ref]
 
Ebbing J., Wiebach T., Kempkensteffen C., Miller K., Bachmann A., Gunzel K., et al. Evaluation of perioperative complications in open and laparoscopic surgery for renal cell cancer with tumor thrombus involvement using the Clavien-Dindo classification Eur J Surg Oncol J Eur Soc Surg Oncol Br Assoc Surg Oncol 2015 ;  41 : 941-952 [cross-ref]
 
Peng B., Zheng J.H., Li H. Effect of retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy of renal carcinoma (nephroma) on perioperative cell immunity J Endourol Endourol Soc 2008 ;  22 : 2161-2164 [cross-ref]
 
Steinberg J.R., Matin S.F. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy: dilemma of the distal ureter Curr Opin Urol 2004 ;  14 : 61-65 [cross-ref]
 
Desai M.M., Strzempkowski B., Matin S.F., Steinberg A.P., Ng C., Meraney A.M., et al. Prospective randomized comparison of transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy J Urol 2005 ;  173 : 38-41 [cross-ref]
 
Nadler R.B., Loeb S., Clemens J.Q., Batler R.A., Gonzalez C.M., Vardi I.Y. A prospective study of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for T1 tumors--is transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted the best approach? J Urol 2006 ;  175 : 1230-1233discussion 1234.
 
Nambirajan T., Jeschke S., Al-Zahrani H., Vrabec G., Leeb K., Janetschek G. Prospective, randomized controlled study: transperitoneal laparoscopic versus retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy Urology 2004 ;  64 : 919-924 [inter-ref]
 
Hemal A.K., Kumar A. A prospective comparison of laparoscopic and robotic radical nephrectomy for T1-2N0M0 renal cell carcinoma World J Urol 2009 ;  27 : 89-94 [cross-ref]
 
Thompson R.H., Atwell T., Schmit G., Lohse C.M., Kurup A.N., Weisbrod A., et al. Comparison of partial nephrectomy and percutaneous ablation for cT1 renal masses Eur Urol 2015 ;  67 : 252-259 [cross-ref]
 

 

 
Traitement dʼun cancer du rein localement avancé

 

Zini L., Perrotte P., Jeldres C., Capitanio U., Pharand D., Arjane P., et al. Nephrectomy improves the survival of patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma BJU Int 2008 ;  102 : 1610-1614 [cross-ref]
 
Stewart G.D., Ang W.J., Laird A., Tolley D.A., Riddick A.C.P., McNeill S.A. The operative safety and oncological outcomes of laparoscopic nephrectomy for T3 renal cell cancer BJU Int 2012 ;  110 : 884-890 [cross-ref]
 
Verhoest G., Couapel J.P., Oger E., Rioux-Leclercq N., Pignot G., Patard J.-J., et al. Safety and Feasibility of Laparoscopic Nephrectomy for Big Tumors (>10cm): A Retrospective Multi-centric Study Clin Genitourin Cancer 2016 ;  14 : e335-e340
 
Capitanio U., Becker F., Blute M.L., Mulders P., Patard J.J., Russo P., et al. Lymph node dissection in renal cell carcinoma Eur Urol 2011 ;  60 : 1212-1220 [cross-ref]
 
Capitanio U., Suardi N., Matloob R., Abdollah F., Castiglione F., Briganti A., et al. Staging lymphadenectomy in renal cell carcinoma must be extended: a sensitivity curve analysis BJU Int 2013 ;  111 : 412-418 [cross-ref]
 
Sun M., Trinh Q.D., Bianchi M., Hansen J., Abdollah F., Tian Z., et al. Extent of lymphadenectomy does not improve the survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma and nodal metastases: biases associated with the handling of missing data BJU Int 2014 ;  113 : 36-42
 
Pantuck A.J., Zisman A., Dorey F., Chao D.H., Han K.-R., Said J., et al. Renal cell carcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Impact on survival and benefits of immunotherapy Cancer 2003 ;  97 : 2995-3002 [cross-ref]
 
Sorbellini M., Kattan M.W., Snyder M.E., Reuter V., Motzer R., Goetzl M., et al. A postoperative prognostic nomogram predicting recurrence for patients with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma J Urol 2005 ;  173 : 48-51 [cross-ref]
 
Scherr A.J.O., Lima J.P.S.N., Sasse E.C., Lima C.S.P., Sasse A.D. Adjuvant therapy for locally advanced renal cell cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis BMC Cancer 2011 ;  11 : 115 [cross-ref]
 
Wood C., Srivastava P., Bukowski R., Lacombe L., Gorelov A.I., Gorelov S., et al. An adjuvant autologous therapeutic vaccine (HSPPC-96; vitespen) versus observation alone for patients at high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III trial Lancet 2008 ;  372 : 145-154 [cross-ref]
 
Hass N.B. Adjuvant sorafenib or sunitinib for unfavorable renal carcinoma, an ECOG-ACRIN-led NCTN phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2015 ;  33 : A4508
 
Bigot P., Pignot G., Bernhard J.C., Patard J.J. Neoadjuvant targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma Prog En Urol J Assoc Fr Urol Société Fr Urol 2016 ;  26 : 191-196 [cross-ref]
 
Capitanio U., Perrotte P., Zini L., Jeldres C., Shariat S.F., Isbarn H., et al. Nephrectomy improves survival in patients with invasion of adjacent viscera and absence of nodal metastases (stage T4N0 renal cell carcinoma) BJU Int 2009 ;  104 : 795-799 [cross-ref]
 
Margulis V., Sanchez-Ortiz R.F., Tamboli P., Cohen D.D., Swanson D.A., Wood C.G. Renal cell carcinoma clinically involving adjacent organs: experience with aggressive surgical management Cancer 2007 ;  109 : 2025-2030 [cross-ref]
 
Kirkali Z., Van Poppel H. A critical analysis of surgery for kidney cancer with vena cava invasion Eur Urol 2007 ;  52 : 658-662 [cross-ref]
 
Subramanian V.S., Stephenson A.J., Goldfarb D.A., Fergany A.F., Novick A.C., Krishnamurthi V. Utility of preoperative renal artery embolization for management of renal tumors with inferior vena caval thrombi Urology 2009 ;  74 : 154-159 [inter-ref]
 
Abel E.J., Thompson R.H., Margulis V., Heckman J.E., Merril M.M., Darwish O.M., et al. Perioperative outcomes following surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava thrombus extending above the hepatic veins: a contemporary multicenter experience Eur Urol 2014 ;  66 : 584-592 [cross-ref]
 

 

 
Traitement du CRM

 

Mickisch G.H., Garin A., van Poppel H., de Prijck L., Sylvester R. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genitourinary Group. Radical nephrectomy plus interferon-alfa-based immunotherapy compared with interferon alfa alone in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: a randomised trial Lancet Lond Engl 2001 ;  358 : 966-970 [cross-ref]
 
Flanigan R.C., Salmon S.E., Blumenstein B.A., Bearman S.I., Roy V., McGrath P.C., et al. Nephrectomy followed by interferon alfa-2b compared with interferon alfa-2b alone for metastatic renal-cell cancer N Engl J Med 2001 ;  345 : 1655-1659 [cross-ref]
 
Flanigan R.C., Mickisch G., Sylvester R., Tangen C., Van Poppel H., Crawford E.D. Cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cancer: a combined analysis J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 1071-1076 [cross-ref]
 
Heng D.Y.C., Wells J.C., Rini B.I., Beuselinck B., Lee J.-L., Knox J.J., et al. Cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with synchronous metastases from renal cell carcinoma: results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Eur Urol 2014 ;  66 : 704-710 [cross-ref]
 
Dabestani S., Marconi L., Hofmann F., Stewart F., Lam T.B.L., Canfield S.E., et al. Local treatments for metastases of renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review Lancet Oncol 2014 ;  15 : e549-e561
 
Alt A.L., Boorjian S.A., Lohse C.M., Costello B.A., Leibovich B.C., Blute M.L. Survival after complete surgical resection of multiple metastases from renal cell carcinoma Cancer 2011 ;  117 : 2873-2882 [cross-ref]
 
Eggener S.E., Yossepowitch O., Kundu S., Motzer R.J., Russo P. Risk score and metastasectomy independently impact prognosis of patients with recurrent renal cell carcinoma J Urol 2008 ;  180 : 873-878discussion 878.  [cross-ref]
 
Kwak C., Park Y.H., Jeong C.W., Lee S.E., Ku J.H. Metastasectomy without systemic therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: comparison with conservative treatment Urol Int 2007 ;  79 : 145-151 [cross-ref]
 
Lee S.E., Kwak C., Byun S.-S., Gill M.C., Chang I.H., Kim Y.J., et al. Metastatectomy prior to immunochemotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma Urol Int 2006 ;  76 : 256-263 [cross-ref]
 
Petralia G., Roscigno M., Zigeuner R., Strada E., Sozzi F., Da Pozzo L., et al. 25th Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology. 450 complete metastasectomy is an independent predictor of cancer specific survival in patients with clinically metastatic renal cell carcinomia Eur Urol Suppl 2010 ;  9 : 162 [cross-ref]
 
StaehlerMD Kruse J., Haseke N., Stadler T.C., Bruns C., Graeb C., et al. 24th Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology. 241 metastasectomy significantly prolongs survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer Eur Urol Suppl 2009 ;  8 : 181
 
Fuchs B., Trousdale R.T., Rock M.G. Solitary bony metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: significance of surgical treatment Clin Orthop 2005 ;  187–92 :
 
Fokas E., et al. Radiotherapy for brain metastases from renal cell cancer: should whole-brain radiotherapy be added to stereotactic radiosurgery?: analysis of 88 patients Strahlenther Onkol 2010 ;  186 : 210-217 [cross-ref]
 
Hunter G.K., et al. The efficacy of external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy for painful spinal metastases from renal cell carcinoma Pract Radiat Oncol 2012 ;  2 : e95-e100
 
Ikushima H., et al. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of brain metastases from renal cell carcinoma Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2000 ;  48 : 1389-1393 [cross-ref]
 
Zelefsky M.J., et al. Tumor control outcomes after hypofractionated and single-dose stereotactic image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for extracranial metastases from renal cell carcinoma Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012 ;  82 : 1744-1748 [cross-ref]
 
Langrand-Escure J., et al. Safety assessment of molecular targeted therapies in association with radiotherapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a real-life report Anticancer Drugs 2016 ;  27 : 427-432 [cross-ref]
 
Forauer A.R., et al. Selective palliative transcatheter embolization of bony metastases from renal cell carcinoma Acta Oncol 2007 ;  46 : 1012-1018 [cross-ref]
 
Kickuth R., et al. Interventional management of hypervascular osseous metastasis: role of embolotherapy before orthopedic tumor resection and bone stabilization AJR Am J Roentgenol 2008 ;  191 : W240-W247
 
Shu Yan Huo A., L.M.D., King J., Glenn D. Use of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma Ann Surg Oncol 2009 ;  16 : 3169-3175 [cross-ref]
 
Soga N., et al. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for unresectable pulmonary metastases from renal cell carcinoma BJU Int 2009 ;  104 : 790-794 [cross-ref]
 
Motzer R.J., Bacik J., Murphy B.A., Russo P., Mazumdar M. Interferon-alfa as a comparative treatment for clinical trials of new therapies against advanced renal cell carcinoma J Clin Oncol 2002 ;  20 : 289-296 [cross-ref]
 
Heng D.Y.C., Xie W., Regan M.M., Warren M.A., Golshayan A.R., Sahi C., et al. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: results from a large, multicenter study J Clin Oncol 2009 ;  27 : 5794-5799 [cross-ref]
 
Heng D.Y.C., Xie W., Regan M.M., Harshman L.C., Bjarnason G.A., Vaishampayan U.N., et al. External validation and comparison with other models of the International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium prognostic model: a population-based study Lancet Oncol 2013 ;  14 : 141-148 [inter-ref]
 
Ko J.J., Choueiri T.K., Rini B.I., Lee J.-L., Kroeger N., Srinivas S., et al. First-, second-, third-line therapy for mRCC: benchmarks for trial design from the IMDC Br J Cancer 2014 ;  110 : 1917-1922 [cross-ref]
 
Kroeger N., Xie W., Lee J.-L., Bjarnason G.A., Knox J.J., Mackenzie M.J., et al. Metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy agents: Characterization of survival outcome and application of the International mRCC Database Consortium criteria Cancer 2013 ;  119 : 2999-3006 [cross-ref]
 
Motzer R.J., Hutson T.E., Tomczak P., Michaelson M.D., Bukowski R.M., Rixe O., et al. Sunitinib versus interferon alfa in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma N Engl J Med 2007 ;  356 : 115-124 [cross-ref]
 
Escudier B., Eisen T., Stadler W.M., Szczylik C., Oudard S., Siebels M., et al. Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma N Engl J Med 2007 ;  356 : 125-134 [cross-ref]
 
Escudier B., Pluzanska A., Koralewski P., Ravaud A., Bracarda S., Szczylik C., et al. Bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2a for treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a randomised, double-blind phase III trial Lancet 2007 ;  370 : 2103-2111 [cross-ref]
 
Hudes G., Carducci M., Tomczak P., Dutcher J., Figlin R., Kapoor A., et al. Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal-cell carcinoma N Engl J Med 2007 ;  356 : 2271-2281 [cross-ref]
 
Hutson T.E., Escudier B., Esteban E., Bjarnason G.A., Lim H.Y., Pittman K.B., et al. Randomized phase III trial of temsirolimus versus sorafenib as second-line therapy after sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma J Clin Oncol 2014 ;  32 : 760-767 [cross-ref]
 
Sternberg C.N., Davis I.D., Mardiak J., Szczylik C., Lee E., Wagstaff J., et al. Pazopanib in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial J Clin Oncol 2010 ;  28 : 1061-1068 [cross-ref]
 
Motzer R.J., Hutson T.E., Cella D., Reeves J., Hawkins R., Guo J., et al. Pazopanib versus sunitinib in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma N Engl J Med 2013 ;  369 : 722-731 [cross-ref]
 
Rini B.I., Escudier B., Tomczak P., Kaprin A., Szczylik C., Hutson T.E., et al. Comparative effectiveness of axitinib versus sorafenib in advanced renal cell carcinoma (AXIS): a randomised phase 3 trial Lancet 2011 ;  378 : 1931-1939 [cross-ref]
 
Escudier B., Porta C., Schmidinger M., Algaba F., Patard J.J., Khoo V., et al. Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up Ann Oncol 2014 ;  25 (Suppl 3) : 49-56iii.
 
Escudier B., Porta C., Bono P., Powles T., Eisen T., Sternberg C.N., et al. Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Trial Assessing Treatment Preference for Pazopanib Versus Sunitinib in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: PISCES Study J Clin Oncol 2014 ;  32 : 1412-1418 [cross-ref]
 
Motzer R.J., Escudier B., Oudard S., Hutson T.E., Porta C., Bracarda S., et al. Efficacy of everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial Lancet 2008 ;  372 : 449-456 [cross-ref]
 
Motzer R.J., Escudier B., McDermott D.F., George S., Hammers H.J., Srinivas S., et al. Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma N Engl J Med 2015 ;  373 : 1803-1813 [cross-ref]
 
Choueiri T.K., Escudier B., Powles T., Mainwaring P.N., Rini B.I., Donskov F., et al. Cabozantinib versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma N Engl J Med 2015 ;  373 : 1814-1823 [cross-ref]
 
Choueiri T.K., Escudier B., Powles T., Tannir N.M., Mainwaring P.N., Rini B.I., et al. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial Lancet Oncol 2016 ;  17 : 917-927 [inter-ref]
 
Motzer RJ, Porta C, Vogelzang NJ, Sternberg CN, Szczylik C, Zolnierek J, et al. Dovitinib versus sorafenib for third-line targeted treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 201;15:286-96.
 
Motzer R.J., Barrios C.H., Kim T.M., Falcon S., Cosgriff T., Harker W.G., et al. Phase II randomized trial comparing sequential first-line everolimus and second-line sunitinib versus first-line sunitinib and second-line everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma J Clin Oncol 2014 ;  32 : 2765-2772 [cross-ref]
 
Tannir N.M., Jonasch E., Albiges L., Altinmakas E., Ng C.S., Matin S.F., et al. Everolimus Versus Sunitinib Prospective Evaluation in Metastatic Non-Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ESPN): A Randomized Multicenter Phase 2 Trial Eur Urol 2016 ;  69 : 866-874 [cross-ref]
 
Armstrong A.J., Halabi S., Eisen T., Broderick S., Stadler W.M., Jones R.J., et al. Everolimus versus sunitinib for patients with metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ASPEN): a multi-centre, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial Lancet Oncol 2016 ;  17 : 378-388 [inter-ref]
 

 

 
Situations particulières

 

Linehan W.M., Srinivasan R., Schmidt L.S. The genetic basis of kideney cancer: a metabolic disease Nat Rev Urol 2010 ;  7 : 277-285 [cross-ref]
 
Lonser R.R., Glenn G.M., Walther M., Chew E.Y., Libutti S.K., Linehan W., et al. Von Hippel-Lindau disease Lancet 2003 ;  361 : 2059-2067 [cross-ref]
 
Maher E.R., Neumann H.P.H., Richard S. Von Hippel-Lindau disease: a clinical and scientific review Eur J Hum Genet 2011 ;  19 : 617-623 [cross-ref]
 
Schmidt L.S., Nickerson M.L., Angeloni D., Glenn G.M., Walther M.M., Albert P.S., et al. Early onset hereditary papillary renal carcinoma: germline missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the Met proto-oncogene J Urol 2004 ;  172 : 1256-1261 [cross-ref]
 
Grubb R.L., Franks M.E., Toro J., Middelton L., Choyke L., Fowler S., et al. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer: a syndrome associated with an aggressive form of inherited renal cancer J Urol 2007 ;  177 : 2074-2079 [cross-ref]
 
Menko F.H., van Steensel M.A., Giraud S., Friis-Hansen L., Richard S., Ungari S., et al. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: diagnosis and management Lancet Oncol 2009 ;  10 : 1199-1206 [inter-ref]
 
Joly D., Mejean A., Correas J.M., Timsit M.O., Deveaux S., Landais P., et al. Progress in nephron-sparing therapy of renal cell carcinoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease J Urol 2011 ;  185 : 2056-2060 [cross-ref]
 
Herring J.C., Enquist E.G., Chernoff A., Linehan W.M., Choyke P.L., Walthler M.M. Parenchymal sparing surgery in patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma: 10-year experience J Urol 2001 ;  165 : 777-781 [cross-ref]
 
Kim J.K., Kim S.H., Jang Y.J., Ahn H., Kim C.S., Park H., et al. Renal angiomyolipoma with minimal fat: differentiation from other neoplasms at double-echo chemical shift FLASH MR imaging Radiology 2006 ;  239 : 174-180 [cross-ref]
 
Kim J.I., Cho J.Y., Moon K.C., Lee H.J., Kim S.H. Segmental enhancement inversion at biphasic multidetector CT: characteristic finding of small renal oncytoma Radiology 2009 ;  252 : 441-448 [cross-ref]
 
Guzzo T.J., Pierorazio P.M., Schaeffer E.M., Fishman E.K., Allaf M.E. The accuracy of multidetector computerized tomography for evaluating tumor thrombus in patientswith renal cell carcinoma J Urol 2009 ;  181 : 486-490
 
Gerst S., Hann L.E., Li D., Gonen M., Tickoo S., Sohn M.J. Evaluation of renal masses with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: initial experience AJR Am J Roentgenol 2011 ;  197 : 897-906 [cross-ref]
 
Bosniak M.A. The Bosniak renal cyst classification: 25 years later Radiology 2012 ;  262 : 781-785 [cross-ref]
 
Warren K.S. The Bosniak classification of renal cystic masses BJU Int 2005 ;  95 : 939 [cross-ref]
 

 

 
Suivi

 

Bernhard J.C., Pantuck A.J., Wallerand H., Crepel M., Ferrière J.M., Bellec L., et al. Predictive Factors for Ipsilateral Recurrence After Nephron-sparing Surgery in Renal Cell Carcinoma Eur Urol 2010 ;  57 : 1080-1086 [cross-ref]
 
Tollefson M.K., Takahashi N., Leibovich B.C. Contemporary imaging modalities for the surveillance of patients with renal cell carcinoma Curr Urol Rep 2007 ;  8 : 38-43 [cross-ref]
 
Antonelli A., Cozzoli A., Zani D., Zanotelli T., Nicolai M., Cunico S.C., et al. The follow-up management of non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma: definition of a surveillance protocol BJU Int 2007 ;  99 : 296-300 [cross-ref]
 
Eggener S.E., Yossepowitch O., Pettus J.A., Snyder M.E., Motzer R.J., Russo P. Renal cell carcinoma recurrence after nephrectomy for localized disease: predicting survival from time of recurrence J Clin Oncol 2006 ;  24 : 3101-3106 [cross-ref]
 
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