Recommandations en Onco-Urologie 2010 : Cancer de la prostate

25 novembre 2010

Auteurs : L. Salomon, D. Azria, C. Bastide, P. Beuzeboc, L. Cormier, F. Cornud, D. Eiss, P. Eschwège, N. Gaschignard, C. Hennequin, V. Molinié, P. Mongiat Artus, J.-L. Moreau, Michel Péneau, M. Peyromaure, V. Ravery, X. Rebillard, P. Richaud, P. Rischmann, F. Rozet, F. Staerman, A. Villers, M. Soulié, les membres du CCAFU
Référence : Prog Urol, 2010, 20, S217, suppl. S4




 



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Références



Classification TNM du cancer de la prostate



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Heidenreich A., Bolla M., Joniau S., Joniau S., Mason M.D., Matveev V., et al. Guidelines on Prostate cancer EAU 2010 ; 10-11Chap. 3.

Anatomopathologie du cancer de la prostate



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Uemura H., Hoshino K., Sasaki T., Miyoshi Y., Ishiguro H., Inayama Y., et al. Usefulness of the 2005 International Society of Urologic Pathology Gleason grading system in prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens BJU Int 2009 ;  103 : 1190-1194 [cross-ref]
Montironi R., Cheng L., Mazzucchelli R., Lopez-Beltran A. Pathological definition and difficulties in assessing positive margins in radical prostatectomy specimens BJU Int 2009 ;  103 : 286-288 [cross-ref]

Imagerie du cancer de la prostate



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Lecouvet F.E., Geukens D., Stainier A., Jamar F., Jamart J., D’othee B.J., et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the axial skeleton for detecting bone metastases in patients with highrisk prostate cancer: diagnostic and cost-effectiveness and comparison with current detection strategies J Clin Oncol 2007 ;  25 : 3281-3287 [cross-ref]
Cornud F., Beuvon F., Thevenin F., Chauveinc L., Vieillefond A., Descazeaux A., et al. IRM quantitative dynamique et localisation tumorale d’une tumeur prostatique non palbable Prog Urol 2009 ;  19 : 401-413 [inter-ref]
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Cornud F., Villers A., Mongiat-Artus P., Rébillard X., Soulié M. Les membres du sous-comité « Prostate » du CCAFU IRM et cancer de la prostate Prog Urol 2008 ;  18 : 621-633 [inter-ref]
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Chimioprévention



Sporn M.B., Dunlop N.M., Newton D.L., Smith J.M. Prevention of chemical carcinogenesis by vitamin A and its synthetic analogs (retinoids) Fed Proc 1976 ;  35 : 1332-1338
Lippman S.M., Klein E.A., Goodman P.J., Lucia M.S., Thompson I.M., Ford L.G., et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) JAMA 2009 ;  301 : 39-51 [cross-ref]
Thompson I.M., Goodman P.J., Tangen C.M., Lucia M.S., Miller G.J., Ford L.G., et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2003 ;  349 : 215-224 [cross-ref]
Andriole G.L., Bostwick D.G., Brawley O.W., Gomella L.G., Marberger M., Montorsi F., et al. Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2010 ;  362 : 1192-1202 [cross-ref]
Scardino P.T. The prevention of prostate cancer - the dilemma continues N Engl J Med 2003 ;  349 : 297-299 [cross-ref]
Walsh P.C. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2010 ;  362 : 1237-1238 [cross-ref]

Diagnostic du cancer de la prostate



Catalona W.J., Smith D.S., Ratliff T.L., Dodds K.M., Coplen D.E., Yuan J.J., et al. Measurement of prostate-specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer N Engl J Med 1991 ;  324 : 1156-1161 [cross-ref]
Roddam A.W., Duffy M.J., Hamdy F.C., Ward A.M., Patnick J., Price C.P., et al. Use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoforms for the detection of prostate cancer in men with a PSA level of 2-10 ng/ml: systematic review and meta-analysis Eur Urol 2005 ;  48 : 386-399 [cross-ref]
Vickers A.J., Cronin A.M., Roobol M.J., Savage C.J., Peltola M., Pettersson K., et al. A Four-Kallikrein Panel Predicts Prostate Cancer in Men with Recent Screening: Data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer, Rotterdam Clin Cancer Res 2010 ;  16 : 3232-3239 [cross-ref]
Djavan B., Zlotta A., Kratzik C., Remzi M., Seitz C., Schulman C.C., et al. PSA, PSA density, PSA density of transition zone, free/total PSA ratio, and PSA velocity for early detection of prostate cancer in men with serum PSA 2.5 to 4.0 ng/ml Urology 1999 ;  54 : 517-522 [inter-ref]
Djavan B., Zlotta A.R., Remzi M., Ghawidel K., Bursa B., Hruby S., et al. Total and transition zone prostate volume and age: how do they affect the utility of PSA-based diagnostic parameters for early prostate cancer detection ? Urology 1999 ;  54 : 846-852 [inter-ref]
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Scattoni V., Roscigno M., Freschi M., Briganti A., Fantini G.V., Bertini R., et al. Predictors of prostate cancer after initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation at 10 to 12 core biopsies Urology 2005 ;  66 : 1043-1047 [inter-ref]
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Lemaitre L., Puech P., Poncelet E., Bouye S., Leroy X., Biserte J., et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of anterior prostate cancer: morphometric assessment and correlation with radical prostatectomy findings Eur Radiol 2009 ;  19 : 470-480 [cross-ref]
Presti J.C. Repeat prostate biopsy-when, where, and how ? Urol Oncol 2009 ;  27 : 312-314 [cross-ref]
De la Rosette J.J., Wink M.H., Mamoulakis C., Wondergem N., Ten Kate F.J., Zwinderman K., et al. Optimizing prostate cancer detection: 8 versus 12-core biopsy protocol J Urol 2009 ;  182 : 1329-1336 [cross-ref]
Toi A., Neill M.G., LockwooD G.A., Sweet J.M., Tammsalu L.A., Fleshner N.E. The continuing importance of transrectal ultrasound identification of prostatic lesions J Urol 2007 ;  177 : 516-520 [cross-ref]
Hambrock T., Somford D.M., Hoeks C., Bouwense S.A., Huisman H., Yakar D., et al. Magnetic resonance imaging guided prostate biopsy in men with repeat negative biopsies and increased prostate specific antigen J Urol 2010 ;  183 : 520-527 [cross-ref]
Puech P., Potiron E., Lemaitre L., Leroy X., Haber G.P., Crouzet S., et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of intraprostatic prostate cancer: correlation with radical prostatectomy specimens Urology 2009 ;  74 : 1094-1099 [inter-ref]
Andriole G.L., Grubb R.L., Buys S.S., Chia D., Church T.R., Fouad M.N., et al. Mortality results from a randomized prostate-cancer screening trial N Engl J Med 2009 ;  360 : 1310-1319 [cross-ref]
Schroder F.H., Hugosson J., Roobol M.J., Tammela T.L., Ciatto S., Nelen V., et al. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study N Engl J Med 2009 ;  360 : 1320-1328 [cross-ref]
Peyromaure M., Beuzeboc P., Salomon L., Richaud P., Coloby P., Malavaud B., et al. Le dépistage du cancer de la prostate en 2009 : analyse du comité de cancérologie de l’Association Française d’Urologie Prog Urol 2010 ;  20 : 17-23 [cross-ref]
Lilja H., Ulmert D., Bjork T., Becker C., Serio A.M., Nilsson J.A., et al. Long-term prediction of prostate cancer up to 25 years before diagnosis of prostate cancer using prostate kallikreins measured at age 44 to 50 years J Clin Oncol 2007 ;  25 : 431-436 [cross-ref]
Tang P., Sun L., Uhlman M.A., Robertson C.N., Polascik T.J., Albala D.M., et al. Initial prostate specific antigen 1.5 ng/ml or greater in men 50 years old or younger predicts higher prostate cancer risk J Urol 2010 ;  183 : 946-950
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Facteurs pronostiques



Han M., Partin A.W., Pound C.R., Epstein J.I., Walsh P.C. Long-term biochemical disease-free and cancer-specific survival following anatomic radical retropubic prostatectomy. The 15-year Johns Hopkins experience Urol Clin North Am 2001 ;  28 : 555-565 [inter-ref]
Nelson C.P., Rubin M.A., Strawderman M., Montie J.E., Sanda M.G. Preoperative parameters for predicting early prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy Urology 2002 ;  59 : 740-746 [inter-ref]
Patel D.A., Pesti J.C., McNeal J.E., Gill H., Brooks J.D., King C.R. Preoperative PSA velocity is an independent prognostic factor for relapse after radical prostatectomy J Clin Oncol 2005 ;  23 : 6157-6162 [cross-ref]
King C.R., Freedland S.J., Terris M.K., Kane C.J., Amling C.L., Aronson W.J., Presti J.C. Optimal timing, cutoff and method of calculation of preoperative prostate-specific antigen velocity to predict relapse after prostatectomy: a report from SEARCH Urology 2007 ;  69 : 732-737 [inter-ref]
Palma D., Tyldsley S., Blood P., Liu M., Morris J., Pickles T. Prostate cohort outcomes initiative: Pretreatment PSA velocity as a predictor of disease outcome following radical radiation therapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007 ;  67 : 1425-1429 [cross-ref]
D’Amico A.V., Hui-Chen M., Renshaw A.A., Sussman B., Roehl K.A., Catalona W.J. Identifying men diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer who are at high risk for death from prostate cancer J Urol 2006 ;  175 : S11-S15
Teloken C., Da Ros C.T., Caraver F., Weber F.A., Cavalheiro A.P., Graziottin T.M. Low serum testosterone levels are associated with positive surgical margins in radical retropubic prostatectomy: hypogonadism represents bad prognosis in prostate cancer J Urol 2005 ;  174 : 2178-2180 [cross-ref]
Yamamoto S., Yonese J., Kawakami S., Ohkubo Y., Tatokoro M., Komai Y., et al. Preoperative serum testosterone level as an independent predictor of treatment failure following radical prostatectomy Eur Urol 2007 ;  52 : 696-701 [cross-ref]
Freedland S.J., Terris M.K., Csathy G.S., Kane C.J., Amling C.L., Presti J.C., et al. Search data base study group: Preoperative model for predicting prostate specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy using percent of biopsy tissue with cancer, biopsy Gleason grade and serum prostate specific antigen J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 2215-2220 [cross-ref]
Naya Y., Slaton J.W., Troncoso P., Okihara K., Babaian R.J. Tumor lenght and location of cancer on biopsy predict for side specific extraprostatic cancer extension J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 1093-1097 [cross-ref]
Freedland S.J., Aronson W.J., Csathy G.S., Kane C.J., Amling C.L., Presti J.C., et al. Search data base study group: Comparison of percentage of total prostate needle biopsy tissue with cancer to percentage of cores with cancer for predicting PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database Urology 2003 ;  61 : 742-747 [inter-ref]
Quinn D.I., Henshall S.M., Brenner P.C., Kooner R., Golovsky D., O’Neill G.F., et al. Prognostic significance of preoperative factors in localized prostate carcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy: importance of percentage of biopsies that contain tumor and the presence of biopsy perineural invasion Cancer 2003 ;  97 : 1884-1893 [cross-ref]
Cornud F., Villers A., Mongiat-Artus P., Rébillard X., Soulié M.Les membres du sous-comité « prostate » du CCAFU Imagerie par résonnance magnétique et cancer de la prostate Prog Urol 2008 ;  18 : 621-633 [inter-ref]

Modalités thérapeutiques - La surveillance du cancer de la prostate



Staerman F, Peyromaure M, Irani J, Gaschignard N, Mottet N, Soulié M, et al. Place de la surveillance active dans le cancer de la prostate à faible risque de progression. Prog Urol 2010 [In press].

Prostatectomie totale



Ficarra V., Novara G., Artibani W., Cestari A., Galfano A., Graefen M., et al. Retropubic, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 1037-1063 [cross-ref]
Shikanov S., Woo J., Al-Ahmadie H., Katz M.H., Zagaja G.P., Shalhav A.L., et al. Extrafascial versus interfascial nerve-sparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy : comparison of functional outcomes and positive surgical margins characteristics Urology 2009 ;  74 : 611-616 [inter-ref]
Marien T., Sankin A., Lepor H. Factors predicting preservation of erectile function in men undergoing open radical retropubic prostatectomy J Urol 2009 ;  181 : 1817-1822 [cross-ref]
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Nelles J.L., Freedland S.J., Presti J.C., Terris M.K., Aronson W.J., Amling C.L., et al. Impact on nerve sparing on surgical margins and biochemical recurrence: results from the SEARCH database Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2009 ;  12 : 172-176 [cross-ref]
Briganti A., Chun F.K., Salonia A., Zanni G., Scattoni V., Valiquette L., et al. Validation of a nomogram predicting the probability of lymph node invasion among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and an extended pelvic lymphadenectomy Eur Urol 2006 ;  49 : 1019-1026 [cross-ref]
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Briganti A., Blute ml., Eastham J.H., Graefen M., Heidenreich A., Karnes, et al. Pelvic lymph node dissection in prostate cancer Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 1251-1265 [cross-ref]
Joslyn S.A., Konety B.R. Impact of extent of lymphadenectomy on survival after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer Urology 2006 ;  68 : 121-125 [inter-ref]
Heidenreich A., Ohlmann C.H., Polyakov S. Anatomical extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy Eur Urol 2007 ;  52 : 29-37 [cross-ref]
Briganti A., Chun F.K., Salonia A., Gallina A., Zanni G., Scattoni V., et al. Critical assessment of ideal nodal yield at pelvic lymphadenectomy to accurately diagnose prostate cancer nodal metastasis in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy Urology 2007 ;  69 : 147-151 [inter-ref]
Wagner M., Sokoloff M., Daneshmand S. The role of pelvic lymphadenectomy for prostate cancer-therapeutic ? J Urol 2008 ;  179 : 408-413 [cross-ref]
Selli C., Montironi R., Bono A., Pagano F., Zattoni F., Manganelli J., et al. Effects of complete androgen blockade for 12 and 24 weeks on the pathological stage and resection margin status of prostate cancer J Clin Pathol 2002 ;  55 : 508-513 [cross-ref]
Van der Kwast T.H., Tetu B., Candas B., Gomez J.L., Cusan L., Labrie F. Prolonged neoadjuvant combined androgen blockade leads to a further reduction of prostatic tumor volume: three versus six months of endocrine therapy Urology 1999 ;  53 : 523-529 [cross-ref]
Gleave M.E., Goldenberg S.L., Chin J.L., Warner J., Saad F., Klotz H., et al. Randomized comparative study of 3 versus 8-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy: biochemical and pathological effects J Urol 2001 ;  166 : 500-506 [cross-ref]
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Soloway M.S., Pareek K., Sharifi R., Wajsman Z., McLeod D., Wood D.P., et al. Neoadjuvant androgen ablation before radical prostatectomy in cT2bNxMo prostate cancer: 5-year results J Urol 2002 ;  167 : 112-116 [cross-ref]
Klotz L.H., Goldenberg S.L., Jewett M.A., Fradet Y., Nam R., Barkin J., et al. Long-term followup of a randomized trial of 0 versus 3 months of neoadjuvant androgen ablation before radical prostatectomy J Urol 2003 ;  170 : 791-794 [cross-ref]
Aus G., Abrahamsson P.A., Ahlgren G., Hugosson J., Lundberg S., Schain M., et al. Three-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy: a 7-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial BJU Int 2002 ;  90 : 561-566 [cross-ref]
Schulman C.C., Debruyne F.M., Forster G., Selvaggi F.P., Zlotta A.R., Witjes W.P. 4-Year follow-up results of a European prospective randomized study on neoadjuvant hormonal therapy prior to radical prostatectomy in T2-3N0M0 prostate cancer. European Study group on Neoadjuvant Treatment of Prostate Cancer Eur Urol 2000 ;  38 : 706-713 [cross-ref]
Van Poppel H. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy and radical prostatectomy: the jury is still out Eur Urol 2001 ;  39 : 10-14 [cross-ref]
Prezioso D., Lotti T., Polito M., Montironi R. Neoadjuvant hormone treatment with leuprolide acetate depot 3.75 mg and cyproterone acetate, before radical prostatectomy:a randomized study Urol Int 2004 ;  72 : 189-195 [cross-ref]
Thompson I.M., Tangen C.M., Paradelo J., Lucia M.S., Miller G., Troyer D., et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologically advanced prostate cancer: a randomized clinical trial JAMA 2006 ;  296 : 2329-2335 [cross-ref]
Bolla M., Van Poppel H., Collette L., Van Cangh P., Vekemans K., Da Pozzo L., et al. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Postoperative radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy: a randomised controlled trial (EORTC trial 22 911) Lancet 2005 ;  366 : 572-578 [cross-ref]
Wiegel T., Bottke D., Steiner U., Siegmann A., Golz R., Störkel S., et al. Phase III postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy compared with radical prostatectomy alone in pT3 prostate cancer with postoperative undetectable prostate-specific antigen: ARO 96-02/AUO AP 09/95 J Clin Oncol 2009 ;  27 : 2924-2930 [cross-ref]
Van der Kwast T.H., Bolla M., Van Poppel H., Van Cangh P., Vekemans K., Da Pozzo L., et al. Identification of patients with prostate cancer who benefit from immediate postoperative radiotherapy: EORTC 22 911 J Clin Oncol 2007 ;  25 : 4178-4186 [cross-ref]
Thompson I.M., Tangen C.M., Paradelo J., Lucia M.S., Miller G., Troyer D., et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathological T3N0M0 prostate cancer significantly reduces risk of metastases and improves survival: long-term followup of a randomized clinical trial J Urol 2009 ;  181 : 956-962 [cross-ref]
McLeod D.G., See W.A., Klimberg I., Gleason D., Chodak G., Montie J., et al. The bicalutamide 150 mg early prostate cancer program: findings of the North American trial at 7.7-year median followup J Urol 2006 ;  176 : 75-80 [cross-ref]
Fourcade R.O., Richaud P., Coloby P., Malavaud B. Groupe des investigateurs français du programme EPC: impact du bicalutamide à la dose de 150 mg dans le traitement du cancer de la prostate : 3eþanalyse de l’Étude EPC (early prostate cancer) Prog Urol 2007 ;  17 : 891-910
Messing E.M., Manola J., Sarosdy M., Wilding G., Crawford E.D., Trump D. Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer N Engl J Med 1999 ;  341 : 1781-1788 [cross-ref]
Messing E.M., Manola J., Yao J., Kiernan M., Crawford D., Wilding G., et al. Immediate versus deferred androgen deprivation treatment in patients with node-positive prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy Lancet Oncol 2006 ;  7 : 472-479 [inter-ref]
Wong Y.N., Freedland S., Egleston B., Hudes G., Schwartz J.S., Armstrong K. Role of androgen deprivation therapy for node-positive prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2009 ;  27 : 100-105 [cross-ref]
Guazzoni G., Cestari A., Naspro R., Riva M., Centemero A., Zanoni M., et al. Intra- and peri-operative outcomes comparing radical retropubic and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: results from a prospective, randomised, single-surgeon study Eur Urol 2006 ;  50 : 98-104 [cross-ref]
Thomas C., Jones J., Jäger W., Hampel C., Thüroff J.W., Gillitzer R. Incidence, clinical symptoms and management of rectourethral fistulas after radical prostatectomy J Urol 2010 ;  183 : 608-612 [cross-ref]
Anastasiadis A.G., Salomon L., Katz R., Hoznek A., Chopin D., Abbou C.C. Radical retropubic versus laparoscopic prostatectomy: a prospective comparison of functional outcome Urology 2003 ;  62 : 292-297 [inter-ref]
Touijer K., Eastham J.A., Secin F.P., Romero Otero J., Serio A., Stasi J., et al. Comprehensive prospective analysis of outcomes between open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy conducted in 2003 to 2005 J Urol 2008 ;  179 : 1811-1817 [cross-ref]
Krambeck A.E., Dimarco D.S., Rangel L.J., Bergstrajh E.J., Myers R.P., Blute M.L., et al. Radical prostatectomy for prostatic adenocarcinoma: a matched comparison of open retropubic and robotassisted techniques BJU Int 2009 ;  103 : 448-453 [cross-ref]
Joseph J.V., Vicente I., Madeb R., Erturk E., Patel H.R. Robot-assisted versus pure laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: are there any differences ? BJU Int 2005 ;  96 : 39-42 [cross-ref]
Devonec M., Saussine C., Fourmarier M., Azzouzi A.R., Ballereau C., Desgrandchamps F., et al. Prise en charge de l’incontinence urinaire après prostatectomie totale (CTMH AFU 2006). Prévention de l’incontinence et recommandations du CTMH Prog Urol 2008 ;  18 : 89-94 [inter-ref]
Tewari A., Srivasatara A., Menon M.Members of the VIP team A prospective comparison of radical retropubic prostatectomy and robot-assisted prostatectomy: experience in one institution BJU Int 2003 ;  92 : 205-210 [cross-ref]
Marien T.P., Lepor H. Does a nerve-sparing technique or potency affect continence after open radical retropubic prostatectomy ? BJU Int 2008 ;  102 : 1581-1584 [cross-ref]
Droupy S. Prise en charge de la dysfonction érectile après prostatectomie totale Prog Urol 2009 ;  19 : 893-896 [inter-ref]
Borboroglu P.G., Sands J.P., Roberts J.L., Amling C.L. Risk factors for vesicourethral anastomotic stricture after radical prostatectomy Urology 2000 ;  56 : 96-100 [inter-ref]
Kostakopoulos A., Argiropoulos V., Protogerou V., Tekerlekis P., Melekos M. Vesicourethral anastomotic strictures after radical retropubic prostatectomy: the experience of a single institution Urol Int 2004 ;  72 : 17-20 [cross-ref]
Gallo L., Perdona S., Autorino R., Menna L., Claudio L., Marra L., et al. Vesicourethral anastomosis during radical retropubic prostatectomy: does the number of sutures matter ? Urology 2007 ;  69 : 547-551 [inter-ref]
Teber D., Erdogru T., Cresswell J., Gozen A.S., Frede T., Rassweiler J.J. Analysis of three different vesicourethral anastomotic techniques in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy World J Urol 2008 ;  26 : 617-622 [cross-ref]

Radiothérapie



Dearnaley D.P., Khoo V.S., Norman A.R., Meyer L., Nahum A., et al. Comparison of radiation side-effects of conformal and conventional radiotherapy in prostate cancer: a randomised trial Lancet 1999 ;  353 : 267-272 [cross-ref]
Chung H.T., Xia P., Chan L.W., Park-Somers E., Roach M. Does image-guided radiotherapy improve toxicity profile in whole pelvic-treated high-risk prostate cancer ? Comparison between IG-IMRT and IMRT Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 ;  73 : 53-60 [cross-ref]
Peeters S.T., Heemsbergen W.D., Koper P.C., Van Putten W.L., Slot A., Dielwart M., et al. Dose-response in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: results of the Dutch multicenter randomized phase III trial comparing 68 Gy of radiotherapy with 78 Gy J Clin Oncol 2006 ;  24 : 1990-1996 [cross-ref]
Pollack A., Zagars G.K., Starkschall G., Antolak J.A., Lee J.J., Huang E., et al. Prostate cancer radiation dose response: results of the M. D. Anderson phase III randomized trial Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 ;  53 : 1097-1105 [cross-ref]
Zietman A.L., Desilvio M.L., Slater J.D., Miller D.W., Adams J.A., et al. Comparison of conventional-dose vs high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a randomized controlled trial JAMA 2005 ;  294 : 1233-1239 [cross-ref]
Roach M., Desilvio M., Lawton C., Uhl V., Machtay M., Seider M.J., et al. Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology group 9413 J Clin Oncol 2003 ;  21 : 1904-1911 [cross-ref]
Pommier P., Chabaud S., Lagrange J.L., Richaud P., Lesaunier F., Le Prise E., et al. Is there a role for pelvic irradiation in localized prostate adenocarcinoma ? Preliminary results of GETUG-01 J Clin Oncol 2007 ;  25 : 5366-5373 [cross-ref]
Morris M.M., Dallow K.C., Zietman A.L., Park J., Althausen A., Heney N.M., et al. Adjuvant and salvage irradiation following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1997 ;  38 : 731-736 [cross-ref]
Cozzarini C., Montorsi F., Fiorino C., Alongi F., Bolognesi A., Da Pozzo L., et al. Need for high radiation dose (> or =70 Gy) in early postoperative irradiation after radical prostatectomy: a single-institution analysis of 334 high-risk, node-negative patients Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 ;  75 : 966-967 [cross-ref]
Bernard J.R., Buskirk S.J., Heckman M.G., Diehl N.N., Ko S.J., Macdonald O.K., et al. Salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: dose-response analysis Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 735-740 [cross-ref]
Poortmans P., Bossi A., Vandeputte K., Bosset M., Miralbell R., Maingon P., et al. Guidelines for target volume definition in post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer, on behalf of the EORTC Radiation Oncology group Radiother Oncol 2007 ;  84 : 121-127 [cross-ref]
Wiegel T., Lohm G., Bottke D., Höcht S., Miller K., Siegmann A., et al. Achieving an undetectable PSA after radiotherapy for biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy is an independent predictor of biochemical outcome - -results of a retrospective study Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 ;  73 : 1009-1016 [cross-ref]
Stephenson A.J., Shariat S.F., Zelefsky M.J., Kattan M.W., Butler E.B., Teh B.S., et al. Salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy JAMA 2004 ;  291 : 1325-1332 [cross-ref]
Hu J.C., Elkin E.P., Krupski T.L., Gore J., Litwin M.S. The effect of postprostatectomy external beam radiotherapy on quality of life: results from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor Cancer 2006 ;  107 : 281-288 [cross-ref]
Moinpour C.M., Hayden K.A., Unger J.M., Thompson I.M., Redman M.W., Canby-Hagino E.D., et al. Health-related quality of life results in pathologic stage C prostate cancer from a Southwest Oncology Group trial comparing radical prostatectomy alone with radical prostatectomy plus radiation therapy J Clin Oncol 2008 ;  26 : 112-120 [cross-ref]
Hartsell W.F., Scott C.B., Bruner D.W., Scarantino C.W., Ivker R.A., Roach M., et al. Randomized trial of short- versus long-course radiotherapy for palliation of painful bone metastases J Natl Cancer Inst 2005 ;  97 : 798-804 [cross-ref]
Janjan N., Lutz S.T., Bedwinek J.M., Hartsell W.F., NG A., Pieters R.S., et al. Therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of bone metastasis: a report from the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology J Palliat Med 2009 ;  12 : 417-426 [cross-ref]
Roach M., Bae K., Speight J., Wolkov H.B., Rubin P., Lee R.J., et al. Short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: long-term results of RTOG 8610 J Clin Oncol 2008 ;  26 : 585-591 [cross-ref]
Denham J.W., Steigler A., Lamb D.S., Joseph D., Mameghan H., Turner S., et al. Short-term androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: results from the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 randomised controlled trial Lancet Oncol 2005 ;  6 : 841-850 [inter-ref]
Crook J., Ludgate C., Malone S., Lim J., Perry G., Eapen L., et al. Report of a multicenter Canadian phase III randomized trial of 3 months vs. 8 months neoadjuvant androgen deprivation before standard-dose radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004 ;  60 : 15-23 [cross-ref]
D’Amico A.V., Manola J., Loffredo M., Renshaw A.A., Dellacroce A., Kantoff P.W. 6-month androgen suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial JAMA 2004 ;  292 : 821-827
D’Amico A.V., Chen M.H., Renshaw A.A., Loffredo M., Kantoff P.W. Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial JAMA 2008 ;  299 : 289-295
Pilepich M.V., Winter K., John M.J., Mesic J.B., Sause W., Rubin P., et al. Phase III radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 86-10 of androgen deprivation adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001 ;  50 : 1243-1252 [cross-ref]
Kumar S., Shelley M., Harrison C., Coles B., Wilt T.J., Mason M.D. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 ; CD006019.
Pilepich M.V., Winter K., Lawton C.A., Krisch R.E., Wolkov H.B., Movsas B., et al. Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma - -long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005 ;  61 : 1285-1290 [cross-ref]
Hanks G.E., Pajak T.F., Porter A., Grignon D., Brereton H., Venkatesan V., et al. Phase III trial of long-term adjuvant androgen deprivation after neoadjuvant hormonal cytoreduction and radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate: the Radiation Therapy Oncology group Protocol 92-02 J Clin Oncol 2003 ;  21 : 3972-3978 [cross-ref]
Horwitz E.M., Bae K., Hanks G.E., Porter A., Grignon D.J., Brereton H.D., et al. Ten-year follow-up of radiation therapy oncology group protocol 92-02: a phase III trial of the duration of elective androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2008 ;  26 : 2497-2504 [cross-ref]
Bolla M., Collette L., Blank L., Warde P., Dubois J.B., Mirimanoff R.O., et al. Long-term results with immediate androgen suppression and external irradiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (an EORTC study): a phase III randomised trial Lancet 2002 ;  360 : 103-106 [cross-ref]
Bolla M., De Reijke T.M., Van Tienhoven G., Van den Bergh A.C., Oddens J., Poortmans P.M., et al. Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2009 ;  360 : 2516-2527 [cross-ref]
Widmark A., Klepp O., Solberg A., Damber J.E., Angelsen A., Fransson P., et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial Lancet 2009 ;  373 : 301-308 [cross-ref]
Mottet N., Peneau M., Mazeron J.J., Molinie V., Richaud P. Radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation vs androgen deprivation alone in clinically locally advanced prostate cancer (PCA) T3-T4, N0, M0 in a multicenter randomised phase III study J Urol 2010 ;  183 : e226
Warde P.R., Mason M.D., Sydes M.R., Gospodarowicz M.K., Swanson G.P., Kirkbride P., et al. Intergroup randomized phase III of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced prostate cancer (CaP) (NCIC-CTG, SWOG, MRC-UK, INT: T94-0110; NCT00002633) J Clin Oncol 2010 ;  28 : 343s[Abstract CRA4504].
Abdel-Wahab M., Reis I.M., Wu J., Duncan R. Second primary cancer risk of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: an analysis of SEER data Urology 2009 ;  74 : 866-871 [inter-ref]
Bhojani N., Capitanio U., Suardi N., Jeldres C., Isbarn H., Shariat S.F., et al. The rate of secondary malignancies after radical prostatectomy versus external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer: a population-based study on 17,845 patients Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 342-348 [cross-ref]

Curiethérapie interstitielle



Guzzo T.J., Levin B.M., Lee R., Guo M., Chen Z., Whittington R., et al. Relationship of biochemical outcome to percentage of positive biopsies in men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy Urology 2008 ;  71 : 723-727 [inter-ref]
Nurani R., Wallner K., Merrick G., Virgin J., Orio P., True L.D. Optimized prostate brachytherapy minimizes the prognostic impact of percent of biopsy cores involved with adenocarcinoma J Urol 2007 ;  178 : 1968-1973 [cross-ref]
Zelefsky M.J., Kuban D.A., Levy L.B., Potters L., Beyer D.C., Blasko J.C., et al. Multi-institutional analysis of long-term outcome for stages T1-T2 prostate cancer treated with permanent seed implantation Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007 ;  67 : 327-333 [cross-ref]
Hinnen K.A., Battermann J.J., Van Roermund J.G., Moerland M.A., Jürgenliemk-Schulz I.M., Frank S.J., et al. Long-term biochemical and survival outcome of 921 patients treated with I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 1433-1438 [cross-ref]
Taira A.V., Merrick G.S., Galbreath R.W., Wallner K.E., Butler W.M. Natural history of clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with monotherapeutic permanent interstitial brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 349-354 [cross-ref]
Grimm P.D., Blasko J.C., Sylvester J.E., Meier R.M., Cavanagh W. 10-year biochemical (prostate-specific antigen) control of prostate cancer with (125) I brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001 ;  51 : 31-40 [cross-ref]
Munro N.P., Al-Qaisieh B., Bownes P., Smith J., Carey B., Bottomley D., et al. Outcomes from Gleason 7, intermediate risk, localized prostate cancer treated with Iodine-125 monotherapy over 10years Radiother Oncol 2010 ;  96 : 34-37 [cross-ref]
Stone N.N., Potters L., Davis B.J., Ciezki J.P., Zelefsky M.J., Roach M., et al. Multicenter analysis of effect of high biologic effective dose on biochemical failure and survival outcomes in patients with Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 ;  73 : 341-346 [cross-ref]
Pinkawa M., Piroth M.D., Holy R., Fischedick K., Schaar S., Borchers H., et al. Prostate-specific antigen kinetics following externalbeam radiotherapy and temporary (Ir-192) or permanent (I-125) brachytherapy for prostate cancer Radiother Oncol 2010 ;  96 : 27-29 [cross-ref]
Dosoretz A.M., Chen M.H., Salenius S.A., Ross R.H., Dosoretz D.E., Katin M., et al. Mortality in men with localized prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy with or without neoadjuvant hormone therapy Cancer 2010 ;  116 : 837-842 [cross-ref]

HIFU (Ultra-sons Focalisés à Haute Intensité)



Rébillard X., Soulié M., Chartier-Kastler E., Davin J.L., Mignard J.P., Moreau J.L., et al. High-intensity focused ultrasound in prostate cancer; a systematic literature review of the French Association of Urology BJU Int 2008 ;  101 : 1205-1213
Gelet A., Chapelon J.Y., Bouvier R., Souchon R., Pangaud C., Abdelrahim A.F., et al. Treatment of prostate cancer with transrectal focused ultrasound: early clinical experience Eur Urol 1996 ;  29 : 174-183
Madersbacher S., Pedevilla M., Vingers L., Susani M., Marberger M. Effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on human prostate cancer in vivo Cancer Res 1995 ;  55 : 3346-3351
Rove K.O., Sullivan K.F., Crawford E.D. High-intensity focused ultrasound: ready for primetime Urol Clin North Am 2010 ;  37 : 27-35 [inter-ref]
Crouzet S., Rébillard X., Chevallier D., Rischmann P., Pasticier G., Garcia G., et al. Multicentric oncologic outcomes of high intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer in 803 patients Eur Urol 2010 ;  58 : 559-566 [cross-ref]
Poissonnier L., Chapelon J.Y., Rouviere O., Curiel L., Bouvier R., Martin X., et al. Control of prostate cancer by transrectal HIFU in 227 patients Eur Urol 2007 ;  51 : 381-387 [cross-ref]
Blana A., Murat F.J., Walter B., Thuroff S., Wieland W.F., Chaussy C., et al. First analysis of the long-term results with transrectal HIFU in patients with localised prostate cancer Eur Urol 2008 ;  53 : 1194-1201 [cross-ref]
Murat F.J., Poissonnier L., Rabilloud M., Belot A., Bouvier R., Rouviere O., et al. Mid-term results demonstrate salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as an effective and acceptably morbid salvage treatment option for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 640-647 [cross-ref]

Cryothérapie



Shelley M., Wilt T.J., Coles B., Mason M.D. Cryotherapy for localised prostate cancer Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007 ; Art. No. : CD005010. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858.CD005010.pub2.
Aus G. Current status of HIFU and cryotherapy in prostate cancer - A Review Eur Urol 2006 ;  50 : 927-933 [cross-ref]
William C.H., Courtney L.L., James A. Locally ablative therapies for primary radiation failures: a review and critical assessment of the efficacy Current Urology Reports 2007 ;  8 : 217-223
NGuyen P.L., D’Amico A.V., Lee A.K., Suh W.W. Patient selection, cancer control, and complications after salvage local therapy for postradiation prostate-specific antigen failure a systematic review of the literature Cancer 2007 ;  110 : 1417-1428 [cross-ref]

Suppression androgénique



Seidenfeld J., Samson D.J., Hasselblad V., Aronson N., Albertsen P.C., Bennett C.L., et al. Single-therapy androgen suppression in men with advanced prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis Ann Intern Med 2000 ;  132 : 566-577 [cross-ref]
Bubley G.J. Is the flare phenomenon clinically significant ? Urology 2001 ;  58 : 5-9 [inter-ref]
Klotz L., Boccon-Gibod L., Shore N.D., Andreou C., Persson B.E., Cantor P., et al. The efficacy and safety of degarelix: a 12-month, comparative, randomized, open-label, parallel-group phase III study in patients with prostate cancer BJU Int 2008 ;  102 : 1531-1538 [cross-ref]
Moffat L.E. Comparison of Zoladex, diethylstilboestrol and cyproterone acetate treatment in advanced prostate cancer Eur Urol 1990 ;  18 : 26-27 [cross-ref]
Iversen P. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results Urology 2002 ;  60 : 64-71 [inter-ref]
Boccon-Gibod L., Fournier G., Bottet P., Marechal J.M., Guiter J., Rischman P., et al. Eur. Urol. Flutamide versus orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer Eur Urol 1997 ;  32 : 391-395
Iversen P., Tyrrell C.J., Kaisary A.V., Anderson J.B., Van Poppel H., Tammela T.L.J., et al. Bicalutamide monotherapy compared with castration in patients with non-metastatic locally advanced prostate cancer: 6.3 years of follow up J Urol 2000 ;  164 : 1579-1582 [cross-ref]
Loblaw D.A., Mendelson D.S., Talcott J.A., Virgo K.S., Somerfield M.R., Ben-Josef E., et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for the initial hormonal management of androgen-sensitive metastatic, recurrent, or progressive prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2004 ;  22 : 2927-2941 [cross-ref]
McLeod D.G., Iversen P., See W.A., Morris T., Armstrong J., Wirth M.P.Casodex Early Prostate Cancer Trialists’Group Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer BJU Int 2006 ;  97 : 247-254 [cross-ref]
See W.A., Tyrrell C.J.CASODEX Early Prostate Cancer Trialists’group The addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to radiotherapy significantly improves overall survival in men with locally advanced prostate cancer J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2006 ;  132 : S7-S16 [cross-ref]
Akaza H., Hinotsu S., Usami M., Arai Y., Kanetake H., Naito S., Hirao Y.Study Group for the Combined Androgen Blockade Therapy of Prostate Cancer Combined androgen blockade with bicalutamide for advanced prostate cancer: long-term follow-up of a phase 3, double-blind, randomized study for survival Cancer 2009 ;  115 : 3437-3445 [cross-ref]
Calais da Silva F.E., Bono A.V., Whelan P., Brausi M., Marques Queimadelos A., et al. Intermittent androgen deprivation for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer: results from a randomised phase 3 study of the South European Uroncological Group Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 1269-1277 [cross-ref]
Nair B., Wilt T., MacDonald R., Rutks I. Early versus deferred androgen suppression in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002 ; CD003506.
Studer U.E., Whelan P., Albrecht W., Casselman J., De Reijke T., Hauri D., et al. Immediate or deferred androgen deprivation for patients with prostate cancer not suitable for local treatment with curative intent: EORTC Traila 30 891 J. Clin. Oncol. 2006 ;  24 : 1868-1876 [cross-ref]
Sloan J.A., Loprinzi C.L., Novotny P.J., Barton D.L., Lavasseur B.I., Windschitl H. Methodologic lessons learned from hot flash studies J Clin Oncol 2001 ;  19 : 4280-4290 [cross-ref]
Irani J., Salomon L., Oba R., Bouchard P., Mottet N. Efficacy of venlafaxine, medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate for the treatment of vasomotor hot flushes in men taking gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues for prostate cancer: a double blind randomised trial Lancet Oncol 2010 ;  11 : 147-154 [inter-ref]
Smith M.R., Boyce S.P., Moyneur E., Duh M.S., Raut M.K., Brandman J. Risk of clinical fractures after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer J Urol 2006 ;  175 : 136-139 [cross-ref]
Levine G., D’Amico A., Berger P., Clark P., Eckel R., Keating N. et al Androgen-deprivation therapy in prostate cancer and cardiovascular risk Circulation 2010 ;  121 : 1-8

Chimiothérapie



Kantoff P.W., Halabi S., Conaway M., Picus J., Kirshner J., Hars V., et al. Hydrocortisone with or without mitoxantrone in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer: results of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9182 study (9182) J Clin Oncol 1999 ;  17 : 2506-2513
Tannock I.F., Osoba D., Stockler M.R., Ernst D.S., Neville A.J., Moor M.J., et al. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone and low dose prednisone in patients with hormonally resistant prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 1996 ;  14 : 1556-1564
Tannock I.F., De Wit R., Berry W.R., Horti J., Pluzanska A., Chi K.N., et al. TAX 327 Investigators Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2004 ;  351 : 1502-1512 [cross-ref]
Petrylak D.P., Tangen C.M., Hussain M.H., Lara P.N., Jones J.A., Taplin M.E., et al. Long-term efficacy of zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer J Natl Cancer Inst 2004 ;  96 : 879-882
Fizazi K., Le Maitre A., Hudes G., Berry W.R., Kelly W.K., Eymard J.C., et al. Meta-analysis of Estramustine in Prostate Cancer (MECaP) Trialists’Collaborative Group Addition of estramustine to chemotherapy and survival of patients with castrationrefractory prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of individual patient data Lancet Oncol 2007 ;  8 : 994-1000 [inter-ref]
Beer T.M., Gaezotto M., Henner W.D., Eilers K.M., Wersinger E.M. Multiple cycles of intermittent chemotherapy in metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer Br J Cancer 2004 ;  81 : 1425-1427
Eymard J.C., Oudard S., Gravis G., Ferrero J.M., Theodore C., Joly F., et al. Docetaxel reintroduction in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory, docetaxel-sensitive, prostate cancer: A retrospective multicenter study (TRIADE) BJU International 2010 ;  106 : 974-978 [cross-ref]
De Bono J.S., Oudard S., Ozguroglu M., Hansen S., Machiels J.H., Kocak I., et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial Lancet 2010 ;  376 : 1147-1154 [cross-ref]
Saad F., Gleason D.M., Murray R., Tchekmedyian S., Venner P., Lacombe L., et al. Long-term efficacy of zoledronic acid for the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer J Natl Cancer Inst 2004 ;  96 : 879-882 [cross-ref]
Fizazi K., Carducci A., Smith M.R., Damiao R., Brown J.E., et al. A randomized phase III trial of denosumab versus zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2010 ;  28 : 4507

Recommandations thérapeutiques - Tumeurs de risque faible



Andren O., Garmo H., Mucci L., Andresson S.O., Johansson J.E., Fall K. Incidence and mortality of incidental prostate cancer: a Swedish registred-based study Br J Cancer 2009 ;  100 : 170-173 [cross-ref]
Lowe B.A., Listrom M.B. Incidental carcinoma of the prostate: an analysis of the predictors of progression J Urol 1988 ;  140 : 1340-1344 [cross-ref]
Lowe B.A., Listrom M.B. Management of stage A prostate cancer with a high probability of progression J Urol 1988 ;  140 : 1345-1347 [cross-ref]
Holmberg L., Bill-Axelson A., Helgesen F., Salo J.O., Folmerz P., Haggman M., et al. Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study n °4: A randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting in early prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2002 ;  347 : 781-789 [cross-ref]
Steinberg G.D., Bales G.T., Brendler C.B. An analysis of watchful waiting for clinically localized prostate cancer J Urol 1998 ;  159 : 1431-1436 [cross-ref]
Klotz L., Zhang L., Lam A., Nam R., Mamedov A., Loblaw A. Clinical results of long-term follow-up of a large, active surveillance cohort with localize prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2009 ;  28 : 126-131
Carter H.B., Kettermann A., Warlick C., Metter E.J., Landis P., Walsh P.C., et al. Expectant management of prostate cancer with curative intent: an update of the Johns Hopkins experience J Urol 2007 ;  178 : 2359-2365 [cross-ref]
Dall’Era M.A., Konety B.R., Cowan J.E., Shinohara K., Stauf F., Cooperberg M.R., et al. Active surveillance for the management of prostate cancer in a contemporary cohort Cancer 2008 ;  112 : 2664-2670
Hardie C., Parker C., Norman A., Eeles R., Horwich A., Huddart R., et al. Early outcomes of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer BJU Int 2005 ;  95 : 956-960 [cross-ref]
Patel M.I., Deconcini D.T., Lopez-Corona E., Ohori M., Wheeler T., Scardino P.T. An analysis of men with clinically localized prostate cancer who deffered definitive therapy J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 1520-1524 [cross-ref]
Bastian P.J., Carter B.H., Bjartell A., Seitz M., Stanislaus P., Montorsi F., et al. Insignifiant prostate cancer and active surveillance: from definition to clinical implications Eur Urol 2009 ;  55 : 1321-1332 [cross-ref]
Ploussard G., Salomon L., Xylinas E., Allory Y., Vordos D., Hoznek A., et al. Pathological findings and prostate specific antigen outcomes after radical prostatectomy in men eligible for active surveillance - does the risk of misclassification vary according to biopsy criteria ? J Urol 2010 ;  183 : 539-544
Conti S.L., Dall’Era M., Fradet V., Cowan J.E., Simko J., Carroll P.R. Pathological outcomes of candidates for active surveillance of prostate cancer J Urol 2009 ;  181 : 1628-1634 [cross-ref]
Partin A.W., Mangold L.A., Lamm D.M., Walsh P.C., Epstein J.I., Pearson J.D. Contemporary update of the prostate cancer staging nomograms (Partin tables) fort the new millenium Urology 2001 ;  58 : 843-848 [inter-ref]
Gontero P., Kirby R.S. Nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy: techniques and clinical considerations Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2005 ;  8 : 133-139 [cross-ref]
Sokoloff M.H., Brendler C.B. Indications and contraindications for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy Urol Clin North Am 2001 ;  28 : 535-543 [inter-ref]
Stephenson A.J., Kattan M.W., Eastham J.A., Bianco F.J., Yossepowitch O., Vickers A.J., et al. Prostate cancer-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy for patients treated in the prostate-specific antigen era J Clin Oncol 2009 ;  27 : 4300-4305 [cross-ref]
Taira A.V., Merrick G.S., Galbreath R.W., Wallner K.E., Butler W.M. Natural history of clinically staged low and intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with monotherapeutic permanent interstitial brachytherapy Int J Radiation Oncology Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 349-354 [cross-ref]
Peeters S.T., Heemsbergen W.D., Koper P.C., Van Putten W.L., Slot A., Dielwart M.F., et al. Dose-response in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: results of the Dutch multicenter randomized phase III trial comparing 68 Gy of radiotherapy with 78 Gy J Clin Oncol 2006 ;  24 : 1990-1996 [cross-ref]
Blana A., Murat F., Walter B., Thuroff S., Wieland W., Chaussy C., et al. First analysis of the long-term results with transrectal HIFU in patients with localized prostate cancer Eur Urol 2008 ;  53 : 1194-1203 [cross-ref]
Crouzet S., Rebillard X., Chevallier D., Rischmann P., Pasticier G., Garcia G., et al. Multicentric oncologic outcomes of high intensity focused ultrasound for localized prostate cancer in 803 patients Eur Urol 2010 ;  58 : 559-566 [cross-ref]

Tumeurs de risque intermédiaire



D’Amico A.V., Whittington R., Malkowicz S.B., Schultz D., Blank K., Broderick G.A., et al. Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer JAMA 1998 ;  280 : 969-974
D’Amico A.V., Whittington R., Malkowicz S.B., Cote K., Loffredo M., Schultz D., et al. Predicting prostate specific antigen outcome preoperatively in the prostatespecific antigen era J Urol 2001 ;  166 : 2185-2188
D’Amico A.V., Whittington R., Malkowicz S.B., Schultz D., Silver B., Henry L., et al. Clinical utility of the percentage of positive prostate biopsies in defining biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2000 ;  18 : 1164-1672
D’Amico A.V., Schultz D., Silver B., Henry L., Hurwitz M., Kaplan I., et al. The clinical utility of the percent of positive prostate biopsies in predicting biochemical outcome following external-beam radiation therapy for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001 ;  49 : 679-684
Kattan M.W., Scardino P.T. Prediction of progression: nomograms of clinical utility Clin Prostate Cancer 2002 ;  1 : 90-96 [cross-ref]
D’Amico A.V., Moul J., Carroll P.R., Sun L., Lubeck D., Chen M.H. Cancer-specific mortality after surgery or radiation for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed during the prostate-specific antigen era J Clin Oncol 2003 ;  21 : 2163-2172
Makarov D.V., Trock B.J., Humphreys E.B., Mangold L.A., Walsh P.C., Epstein J.L., et al. Updated nomogram to predict pathologic stage, and biopsy Gleason score (Partin tables) based on cases from 2000 to 2005 Urology 2007 ;  69 : 1095-1101 [inter-ref]
Freedland S.J., Terris M.K., Csathy G.S., Kane C.J., Amling C.L., Presti J.C., et al. Search data base study group: Preoperative model for predicting prostate specific antigen recurrence after radical prostatectomy using percent of biopsy tissue with cancer, biopsy Gleason grade and serum prostate specific antigen J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 2215-2220 [cross-ref]
Molinie V. Le score de Gleason en 2008 Ann Pathol 2008 ;  28 : 350-353 [cross-ref]
Ravery V., Goldblatt L., Royer B., Blanc E., Toutblanc M., Boccon-Gibod L. Extensive biopsy protocol improves the detection rate of prostate cancer J Urol 2000 ;  164 : 393-396 [cross-ref]
Freedland S.J., Aronson W.J., Csathy G.S., Kane C.J., Amling C.L., Presti J.C., et al. Comparison of percentage of total prostate needle biopsy tissue with cancer to percentage of cores with cancer for predicting PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database Urology 2003 ;  61 : 742-747 [inter-ref]
Naya Y., Slaton J.W., Troncoso P., Okihara K., Babaian R.J. Tumor lenght and location of cancer on biopsy predict for side specific extraprostatic cancer extension J Urol 2004 ;  171 : 1093-1097 [cross-ref]
D’Amico A.V., Chen M.H., Roehl K.A., Catalona W.J. Preoperative PSA velocity and the risk of death from prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy N Engl J Med 2004 ;  351 : 125-135
Heidenreich A., Ohlmann C.H., Polyakov S. Anatomical extent of pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy Eur Urol 2007 ;  52 : 29-37 [cross-ref]
Peneau M., Villers A., Molinie V., Theis D., Soulié M. Indications de la lymphadénectomie ilio-obturatrice dans le cancer de la prostate cliniquement localisé Prog Urol 2004 ;  14 : 287-294
Bill Axelson A., Holmberg L., Rutuu M., Haqqman M., Andersson S.O., Bratell S. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2005 ;  352 : 1977-1984 [cross-ref]
Graversen P.H., Nielsen K.T., Gasser T.C., Corle D.K., Madsen P.O. RADICAL prostatectomy versus expectant primary treatment in stages I and II prostatic cancer. A fifteen-year follow-up Urology 1990 ;  36 : 493-498 [cross-ref]
Steineck G., Helgesen F., Adolfsson J., Dickman P.W., Johansson J.E., Norlen B.J., et al. Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study Number 4. Quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting N Engl J Med 2002 ;  347 : 790-796 [cross-ref]
Wong Y.N., Mitra N., Hudes G., Localio R., Schwartz J.S., Wan F., et al. Survival associated with treatment vs observation of localized prostate cancer in elderly men Curr Treat Options Oncol 2006 ;  7 : 355-362
Bill-Axelson A., Holmberg L., Filen F., Ruutu M., Garmo H., Busch C., et al. Radical prostatectomy versus wachfulle waiting in localized prostate cancer: the Scandinavian prostate cancer group 4 randomized trial J Natl Cancer Inst 2008 ;  100 : 144-154
Sokoloff M.H., Brendler C.B. Indications and contraindications for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy Urol Clin North Am 2001 ;  28 : 535-543 [inter-ref]
Bastide C., Soulié M., Davin J.L., Rossi D. Marges chirurgicales après prostatectomie totale : aspects techniques et pronostiques Prog Urol 2007 ;  17 : 182-188 [inter-ref]
D’Amico A.V., Whittington R., Malkowicz S.B., Schultz D., Tomaszewski J.E., Wein A. Prostate specific antigen outcome based on the extent of extracapsular extension and margin status in patients with seminal vesicle negative prostate carcinoma of Gleason score < or = 7 Cancer 2000 ;  88 : 2110-2115
D’Amico A.V., Whittington R., Malkowicz S.B., Cote K., Loffredo M., Schultz D., et al. Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy or external beam radiation therapy for patients with clinically localized prostate carcinoma in the prostate specific antigen era Cancer 2002 ;  95 : 281-286
Han M., Partin A.W., Zahurak M., Piantadosi S., Epstein J.I., Walsh P.C. Biochemical (prostate specific antigen) recurrence probability following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer J Urol 2003 ;  169 : 517-523 [cross-ref]
Peeters S.T., Heemsbergen W.D., Koper P.C., Van Putten W.L., Slot A., DIELWART M.F., et al. Dose-response in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: results of the Dutch multicenter randomized phase III trial comparing 68 Gy of radiotherapy with 78 Gy J Clin Oncol 2006 ;  24 : 1990-1996 [cross-ref]
Pollack A., Zagars G., Starkschall G., Antolak J., Lee J., Huang E., et al. Prostate cancer radiation dose response: results of the M.D. Anderson Phase III randomized trial Int. J. Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002 ;  53 : 1097-1105 [cross-ref]
Sathya J.R., Davis I.R., Julian J.A., Guo Q., Daya D., Dayes I.S., et al. Randomized trial comparing iridium implant plus externalbeam radiation therapy with external-beam radiation therapy alone in node-negative locally advanced cancer of the prostate J Clin Oncol 2005 ;  23 : 1192-1199 [cross-ref]
Zietman A.L., Desilvio M.L., Slater J.D., Rossi C.J., Miller D.W., Adams J.A., et al. Comparison of conventional-dose vs high-dose conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a randomized controlled trial JAMA 2005 ;  294 : 1233-1239 [cross-ref]
Kuban D.A., Tucker S.L., Dong L., Starkschall G., Huang E.H., Cheung M.R., et al. Long-term results of the M. D. Anderson randomized dose-escalation trial for prostate cancer Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008 ;  70 : 67-74 [cross-ref]
Al-Mamgani A., Heemsbergen W.D., Levendag P.C., Lebesque J.V. Subgroup analysis of patients with localized prostate cancer treated within the Dutch-randomized dose escalation trial Radiother Oncol. 2010 ;  96 : 13-18 [cross-ref]
Zietman A.L., Bae K., Slater J.D., Shipley W.U., Efstathiou J.A., Coen J.J. Randomized trial comparing conventional-dose with high-dose conformal radiation therapy in early-stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Long-term results from proton radiation oncology group/American college of radiology 95-09 J Clin Oncol 2010 ;  28 : 1106-1112 [cross-ref]
Zelefsky M.J., Yamada Y., Fuks Z., Zhang Z., Hunt M., Cahlon O., et al. A. Long-term results of conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: impact of dose escalation on biochemical tumor control and distant metastases-free survival outcomes Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008 ;  71 : 1028-1033 [cross-ref]
D’Amico A., Manola J., Loffredo M., Renshaw A., Dellacroce A., Kantoff P. 6-month suppression plus radiation therapy vs radiation therapy alone for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer JAMA 2004 ;  292 : 821-827
D’Amico A.V., Chen M.H., Renshaw A.A., Loffredo M., Kantoff P.W. Androgen suppression and radiation vs radiation alone for prostate cancer: a randomized trial JAMA 2008 ;  299 : 289-295
Salembier C., Lavagnini P., Nickers P., Mangili P., Rijnders A., Polo A., et al. Tumour and target volumes in permanent prostate brachytherapy: a supplement to the ESTRO/EAU/EORTC recommendations on prostate brachytherapy Radiother Oncol 2007 ;  83 : 3-10 [cross-ref]
Nag S., Beyer D., Friedland J.R., Grimm P., Nath R. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer Int J Radiat. Oncol Biol Phys 1999 ;  44 : 789-799 [cross-ref]
Ragde H., Korb L., Elgamal A., Grado G., NADIR B. Modern prostate brachytherapy. Prostate specific antigen results in 219 patients with up to 12 years of observed follow-up Cancer 2000 ;  89 : 135-141 [cross-ref]
Taira A.V., Merrick G.S., Galbreath R.W., Wallner K.E., Butler W.M. Natural history of clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with monotherapeutic permanent interstitial brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 ;  76 : 349-354 [cross-ref]
Ho A.Y., Burri R.J., Cesaretti J.A., Stone N.N., Stock R.G. Radiation dose predicts for biochemical control in intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009 ;  75 : 16-22 [cross-ref]
Dattoli M., Wallner K., True L., Cash J., Sorace R. Long-term outcomes after treatment with brachytherapy and supplemental conformal radiation for prostate cancer patients having intermediate and high-risk features Cancer 2007 ;  110 : 551-555 [cross-ref]
Stock R.G., Yamalachi S., Hall S.J., Stone N.N. Impact of hormonal therapy on intermediate risk prostate cancer treated with combination brachytherapy and external beam irradiation J Urol. 2010 ;  183 : 546-550 [cross-ref]
Rebillard X., Soulié M., Davin J.L.Le CCAFU Traitement par HIFU du cancer de la prostate: revue de la littérature et indications de traitement Prog Urol 2003 ;  13 : 1428-1457
Blana A., Murat F.J., Walter B., Thuroff S., Wieland W.F., Chaussy C., et al. First analysis of the long-term results with transrectal HIFU in patients with localised prostate cancer Eur Urol 2008 ;  53 : 1194-1201 [cross-ref]
Shelley M., Wilt T.J., Coles B., Mason M.D. Cryotherapy for localised prostate cancer Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007 ;  18 : CD005010.

Tumeurs de risque élevé



Pilepich M.V., Winter K., Lawton C.A., Krisch R.E., Wolkov H.B., Movsas B., et al. Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma - long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31 Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005 ;  61 : 1285-1290 [cross-ref]
Bolla M., Collette L., Blank L., Warde P., Dubois J.B., Mirimanoff R.O., et al. Long-term results with immediate androgen suppression and external irradiation in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (an EORTC study): a phase IIII randomised trial Lancet 2003 ;  360 : 103-108
Widmark A., Klepp O., Solberg A., Damber J.E., Angelsen A., Fransson P., et al. Endocrine treatment, with or without radiotherapy, in locally advanced prostate cancer (SPCG-7/SFUO-3): an open randomised phase III trial Lancet 2009 ;  373 : 301-308 [cross-ref]
Mottet N., Peneau M., Mazeron J.J., Molinie V., Richaud P. Radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation vs androgen deprivation alone in clinically locally advanced prostate cancer (PCA) T3-T4, N0, M0 in a multicenter randomised phase III study J Urol 2010 ;  183 : e226
Warde P.R., Mason M.D., Sydes M.R., Gospodarowicz M.K., Swanson G.P., Kirkbride P., et al. Intergroup randomized phase III of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced prostate cancer (CaP) (NCIC-CTG, SWOG, MRC-UK, INT: T94-0110; NCT00002633) J Clin Oncol 2010 ;  28 : 343s
Horwitz E.M., Bae K., Hanks G.E., Porter A., Grignon D.J., Brereton H.D., et al. Ten-year follow-up of radiation therapy oncology group protocol 92-02: a phase III trial of the duration of elective androgen deprivation in locally advanced prostate cancer J Clin Oncol 2008 ;  26 : 2497-2504 [cross-ref]
Bolla M., De Reijke T.M., Van Tienhoven G., Van den Bergh A.C., Oddens J., Poortmans P.M., et al. Duration of androgen suppression in the treatment of prostate cancer N Engl J Med 2009 ;  360 : 2516-2527 [cross-ref]
Soulié M., Thoulouzan M., Peneau M., Richaud P., Ravery V.Les membres du sous-comité prostate du CC-AFU Chirurgie du cancer de la prostate localement avancé Prog Urol 2008 ;  18 : 1031-1037
Loeb S., Smith N.D., Roehl K.A., Catalona W.J. Intermediate-term potency, continence, and survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy for clinically high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer Urology 2007 ;  69 : 1170-1175 [inter-ref]
Van Poppel H., Vekemans K., Da Pozzo L., Bono A., Kliment J., Montironi R., et al. Radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer: results of a feasibility study (EORTC 30001) Eur J Cancer 2006 ;  42 : 1062-1067 [cross-ref]
Van den Ouden D., Hop W., Schröder F.H. Progression in and survival of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (T3) treated with radical prostatectomy as monotherapy J Urol 1998 ;  160 : 1392-1397 [cross-ref]
Ward J.F., Slezak J.M., Blute M.L., Bergstralh E.J., Zincke H. Radical prostatectomy for clinically advanced (cT3) prostate cancer since the advent of prostate-specific antigen testing: 15-year outcome BJU Int 2005 ;  95 : 7516
Carver B.S., Bianco F.J., Scardino P.T., Eastham J.A. Longterm outcome following radical prostatectomy in men with clinical stage T3 prostate cancer J Urol 2006 ;  176 : 564-568 [cross-ref]
Freedland S.J., Partin A.W., Humphreys E.B., Mangold L.A. Walsh PC Radical prostatectomy for cT3a disease Cancer 2007 ;  109 : 1273-1278 [cross-ref]
Studer U.E., Collette L., Whelan P., Albrecht W., Casselman J., De Reijke T., et al. Using PSA to guide timing of androgen deprivation in patients with T0-4 N0-2 M0 prostate cancer not suitable for local curative treatment (EORTC 30 891) Eur Urol 2008 ;  53 : 941-949 [cross-ref]

Suivi après traitement



Lattouf J.B., Saad F. Digital rectal exam following prostatectomy: is it still necessary with the use of PSA ? Eur Urol 2003 ;  43 : 333-336 [cross-ref]
Soulie M., Beuzeboc P., Cornud F., Eschwege P., Gaschignard N., Grosclaude P., et al. Comité de Cancérologie de l’Association Française d’Urologie Recommandations 2007 en onco-urologie. Cancer de la prostate Prog Urol 2007 ;  17 : 1157-1230
Slmmons M.N., Stephenson A.J., Klein E.A. Natural history of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: risk assessment for secondary therapy Eur Urol 2007 ;  51 : 1175-1184
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