Graft thrombosis is a major complication of transplantation. However, there are no recommendation on immediate postoperative thromboprophylaxis after kidney transplantation. We recorded clinical practices in France.
Material and Methods
In 29 transplantation centres, four case studies were submitted to the medical kidney transplantation referent (compatible graft from cadaveric donor, without perioperative complication). No 1: Man, 27-years-old, IgA glomerulonephritis, without history of hypercoagulability or cardiovascular risk factor. Hemodialysis since 12months. No 2: Man, 53-years-old, with history of deep venous thrombosis after cholecystectomy 15years before. Membranous nephropathy. Hemodialysis since 10months. No 3: Man, 58-years-old, with history of myocardial infarction. On aspirin therapy. Nephroangiosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy. Peritoneal dialysis since 6months. No 4: Woman, 63-years-old. Atrial fibrillation on vitamin K antagonists therapy. Lupus nephritis without antiphospholipid syndrome. Hemodialysis since 12months.
No 1: No anticoagulation therapy (62%), calcium heparin at prophylactic doses (34.5%). No 2: No anticoagulation therapy (38%), calcium heparin at prophylactic doses (44.8%). No 3: 62% interrupted aspirin of whom 22% without any immediate anticoagulation and 55% replaced aspirin with calcium heparin at prophylactic doses. Thirty-eight percent carried on with aspirin of whom 63.6% without other prophylaxis and 27.3% in association with calcium heparin at prophylactic doses. No 4: Unfractionned heparin at curative dose (62%), unfractionned heparin at prophylactic doses (17.2%), calcium heparin at prophylactic doses (13.8%).
Postoperative anticoagulation after renal transplantation is established as a local dogma rather than evidence-based medicine. Guideline recommendations and standardized protocols for the use of anticoagulation after kidney transplantation should be developed.