Objectives: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and Tomography with Emission of Positons are increasingly used in prostate cancer.
Materials and method: A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (PubMed), using different associations of the following keywords: MRI, PET MRI, prostate cancer.
Results: Accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer is improved by the combined use of standard T2-weighted MR imaging and advanced functional MR imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. Multiparametric MR imaging provides the highest accuracy in detection, localization, and staging of prostate cancer. This accurate assessment is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management and therapy selection. Another recent advancement in the field is MR imaging guidance for targeted prostate biopsy, which is an alternative to the current standard of transrectal ultrasonography-guided systematic biopsy. Prostate MRI plays also an important role in tumor detection when there is clinical or biochemical suspicion of residual or recurrent disease after treatment. The emergence of new technologies such as Tomography with Emission of Positons (TEP) after injection of 18F-choline, allows to improve the staging of prostate cancer (nodes status, sentinel node and occult metastases) and thus to change the management, especially when relapse.
Conclusion: The first results with modern imaging are already very promising, and numerous prospects are expected, either by improving technologies (parametric fusion of PET and MRI) or the appearance of new tracers more sensitive and more specific than the choline. Bone scan still retains an important place especially since its realization is now coupled with a tomographic study merged with a low dose scanner, thereby remarkably improving its diagnostic performance.